To be a muttaq’n, complying with 2:188 must be the ultimate objective of the siam, in being abstinent from these unjust deeds. So, it seems that the siam in Q 2:187 required those who had experienced the furqan in the form of the Arabic reading (al quran) whereon God’s Kita’b had been attached in being explained. So, they were recommended to attain taqwa and to do so, they were told to consume (kulu) and (wa) absorb (ashrabu’) such kataba (decree/law) that had already been sent (Q 2:185) to them in the form of a specific Arabic reading (the quran) in a heated period (ramadan) in a proclamation (shar).

In Q. 2:187, who was God addressing to do ‘rafathu’ to do ba’shir? And then to complete the siam to the night? They were men, weren’t they? Is there anywhere in the Quran, God has ever said to the women like the men in Q. 2:187 to do the same siam like men in this ayat?

The clear fact that the siam in Q. 2:187 was only for men and hard truth can provide a real sense and expose the catch of the apocryphal concept of fasting in dehydration complying with sun.

Anyway, please see the following:

“So, give (فَٱلْـَٔـٰنَ) good tidings (بَـٰشِرُو) to them (هُنَّ) [the women] and (وَ) seek (ٱبْتَغُوا۟) what (مَا) God (ٱللَّهُ) has decreed (كَتَبَ) for you ( لَكُمْ)”.

— فَٱلْـَٔـٰنَ بَـٰشِرُوهُنَّ وَٱبْتَغُوا۟ مَا كَتَبَ ٱللَّهُ لَكُمْ —

“And kulu and ashrabu until the white thread becomes clear to you from the black thread from the fajr”.

وَكُلُوا۟ وَٱشْرَبُوا۟ حَتَّىٰ يَتَبَيَّنَ لَكُمُ ٱلْخَيْطُ ٱلْأَبْيَضُ مِنَ ٱلْخَيْطِ ٱلْأَسْوَدِ مِنَ ٱلْفَجْرِ

“Then complete the siam to the night”

ثُمَّ أَتِمُّوا۟ ٱلصِّيَامَ إِلَى ٱلَّيْلِ

(I leave kulu, wa-ashrabu, and fajr untranslated for the bigger observation of the whole scenario)

Where is the prohibition of eating and drinking during the day? Where is the sunrise and sunset?
Other than Q. 2:187, If you check every instance in the Quran where وَكُلُوا۟ وَٱشْرَبُوا۟ appear as a common phrase (Q. 2:60, 7:31, 52:19, 69:24, 77:43), you can find the following after the phrase: rizk-Allah (2:60) , do not be extravagant (7:31) , in satisfaction (52:19 hani’an), in satisfaction (hani’an) as a reward for what you did (69:24) and in satisfaction for what you used to do (77:43).

Q. 19:26, fa kuli wa-ashrabu — refers to a clue in Q. 19:24 — (sariyya) a stream from ashrabu (drink) & in Q.19:25 (kulu) to eat from the dates.

Then, what kulu and ashrabu to mean i.e. if these are to eat & drink — then the question is from what to eat and what to drink or what to eat & drink?

Look at Q. 2:188 and see what does kulu also mean? Here it simply means — to consume.

We can go on on to see that wherever kulu to mean to eat and ashrabu to mean to drink there are always hints what to eat and what to drink. However, in Q. 2:187 kulu wa-ashrabu does not have any indication of food at all. Instead, you can sense as:

“”So, give (فَٱلْـَٔـٰنَ) good tidings (بَـٰشِرُو) to them (هُنَّ) [the women] and (وَ) seek (ٱبْتَغُوا۟) what (مَا) God (ٱللَّهُ) has decreed (كَتَبَ) for you ( لَكُمْ) and consume (كُلُوا۟) and absorb (ٱشْرَبُوا۟) until the white thread becomes clear to you from the black thread from the enlightenment (ٱلْفَجْرِ), then complete the abstinence to the night”

فَٱلْـَٔـٰنَ بَـٰشِرُوهُنَّ وَٱبْتَغُوا۟ مَا كَتَبَ ٱللَّهُ لَكُمْ ۚ وَكُلُوا۟ وَٱشْرَبُوا۟ حَتَّىٰ يَتَبَيَّنَ لَكُمُ ٱلْخَيْطُ ٱلْأَبْيَضُ مِنَ ٱلْخَيْطِ ٱلْأَسْوَدِ مِنَ ٱلْفَجْرِ ۖ ثُمَّ أَتِمُّوا۟ ٱلصِّيَامَ إِلَى ٱلَّيْلِ ۚ
Also, you may note that siam in the Quran appears as:

  1. Siam in Q. 2:187 & 2:196 is all about a relentless perseverance in seeking God’s decrees to remove ignorance and myths about God — an ongoing learning process.
  2. Siam in 19:26 was an abstinence for Mother Marry to give the people an excuse to avoid her pregnancy and the period of delivering of the her son. Marry was not ordered to do siam — she was merely told to give an excuse of God to keep her mute in encountering strangers’ inquisitiveness about her strange stance in such an isolated environment.
  3. Siam in 2:196, 4:92, 5:89, 5:95, 58:4 appears to prescribe retribution as a civil penalty for those who made deliberate or inadvertent misdeeds.
    [3:58 AM, 4/2/2022] Al Mamun WhatsApp Group: In continuing siam
  4. Siam in Q. 33:35 appears as one of the attributions that all men and women are expected to attain along with other collective achievements. Thus, this shows how God desires both genders to achieve and behave being muttaqu’n, aggregating the collective qualities. So, the men-abstaining and the women-abstaining, along with other qualities distinctly suggest that siam for the people after the revelations were/are such a mental determination in perseverance to do or abstain from something to get closure to God as HE wills.

We can also note that none of the events of the siam as it took place in the Quran, intended for women as it was always for the men to either to be trained in taqwa (Q. 2:183 -187) to get prepared for an assignment in hajj (Q. 2:196) to complete the mission in victory (Q. 48:24, 48:29) or to be repentant in retribution of the wrongful deeds (Q. 4:92, 5:89, 5:95, 58:4). Thus, aside from Q. 19:26, none of the siam incident and hukum for it were aimed for the women, as the contexts suggest.

[Q. 2:187]

أُحِلَّ لَكُمْ لَيْلَةَ ٱلصِّيَامِ ٱلرَّفَثُ إِلَىٰ نِسَآئِكُمْ ۚ هُنَّ لِبَاسٌ لَّكُمْ وَأَنتُمْ لِبَاسٌ لَّهُنَّ ۗ عَلِمَ ٱللَّهُ أَنَّكُمْ كُنتُمْ تَخْتَانُونَ أَنفُسَكُمْ فَتَابَ عَلَيْكُمْ وَعَفَا عَنكُمْ ۖ فَٱلْـَٔـٰنَ بَـٰشِرُوهُنَّ وَٱبْتَغُوا۟ مَا كَتَبَ ٱللَّهُ لَكُمْ ۚ وَكُلُوا۟ وَٱشْرَبُوا۟ حَتَّىٰ يَتَبَيَّنَ لَكُمُ ٱلْخَيْطُ ٱلْأَبْيَضُ مِنَ ٱلْخَيْطِ ٱلْأَسْوَدِ مِنَ ٱلْفَجْرِ ۖ ثُمَّ أَتِمُّوا۟ ٱلصِّيَامَ إِلَى ٱلَّيْلِ ۚ وَلَا تُبَـٰشِرُوهُنَّ وَأَنتُمْ عَـٰكِفُونَ فِى ٱلْمَسَـٰجِدِ ۗ تِلْكَ حُدُودُ ٱللَّهِ فَلَا تَقْرَبُوهَا ۗ كَذَٰلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ ٱللَّهُ ءَايَـٰتِهِۦ لِلنَّاسِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَّقُونَ

“It is lawful (أُحِلَّ) for you (لَكُمْ) a night (لَيْلَةَ) of the siam, (ٱلصِّيَامِ) the engagement (ٱلرَّفَثُ) to (إِلَىٰ) your women (نِسَآئِكُمْ ۚ)”.

أُحِلَّ لَكُمْ لَيْلَةَ ٱلصِّيَامِ ٱلرَّفَثُ إِلَىٰ نِسَآئِكُمْ ۚ

They are a covering (لِبَاسٌ) for you and you are a covering (لِبَاسٌ) for them.

هُنَّ لِبَاسٌ لَّكُمْ وَأَنتُمْ لِبَاسٌ لَّهُنَّ

God (ٱللَّهُ) knew (عَلِمَ) that you are (أَنَّكُمْ)/you were (كُنتُمْ) circumcised/detached (تَخْتَانُونَ) yourselves (أَنفُسَكُمْ)

عَلِمَ ٱللَّهُ أَنَّكُمْ كُنتُمْ تَخْتَانُونَ أَنفُسَكُمْ

So, pity (فَتَابَ) on you (عَلَيْكُمْ) and (وَ) HE pardoned (عَفَا) your anomaly/abnormality (عَنكُمْ ۖ).

فَتَابَ عَلَيْكُمْ وَعَفَا عَنكُمْ ۖ

So, give (فَٱلْـَٔـٰنَ) good tidings/news (بَـٰشِرُو) to them (هُنَّ) [the women] and (وَ) seek (ٱبْتَغُوا۟) what (مَا) God (ٱللَّهُ) has decreed (كَتَبَ) for you ( لَكُمْ) and consume (كُلُوا۟) and absorb (ٱشْرَبُوا۟) until (حَتَّىٰ) the white (ٱلْأَبْيَضُ) thread (ٱلْخَيْطُ) becomes clear (يَتَبَيَّنَ) to you (لَكُمُ) from (مِنَ) the black (ٱلْأَسْوَدِ) thread (ٱلْخَيْطِ) from/of (مِنَ) the enlightenment (ٱلْفَجْرِ), then (ثُمَّ) complete (أَتِمُّوا۟) the perseverance/abstinence (ٱلصِّيَامَ) towards (إِلَى) the night (ٱلَّيْلِ ۚ), and (وَ) do not (لَا) preach to them (تُبَـٰشِرُوهُنَّ) while you are devoted (عَـٰكِفُونَ) within (فِى) the time of submission (ٱلْمَسَـٰجِدِ).

فَٱلْـَٔـٰنَ بَـٰشِرُوهُنَّ وَٱبْتَغُوا۟ مَا كَتَبَ ٱللَّهُ لَكُمْ ۚ وَكُلُوا۟ وَٱشْرَبُوا۟ حَتَّىٰ يَتَبَيَّنَ لَكُمُ ٱلْخَيْطُ ٱلْأَبْيَضُ مِنَ ٱلْخَيْطِ ٱلْأَسْوَدِ مِنَ ٱلْفَجْرِ ۖ ثُمَّ أَتِمُّوا۟ ٱلصِّيَامَ إِلَى ٱلَّيْلِ ۚ وَلَا تُبَـٰشِرُوهُنَّ وَأَنتُمْ عَـٰكِفُونَ فِى ٱلْمَسَـٰجِدِ

Those are the limits of God, so do not approach them, so God makes clear HIS signs/verses/ayats to the people so that they may be aware of God ”.

تِلْكَ حُدُودُ ٱللَّهِ فَلَا تَقْرَبُوهَا ۗ كَذَٰلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ ٱللَّهُ ءَايَـٰتِهِۦ لِلنَّاسِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَّقُونَ

Q: One thing to be noted that in verses 2:183 and 187 al-siyam is mentioned whereas other siyam verses is only “siyam”

A: The form and nature of the Siam in Q. 2:187 was fixed, specific and pre-meditated for all those who witnessed the time of revelation in the form of the reading/al-quran. Whereas, siam in all other instances was not fixed in nature that may have been differed person to parson, so, siam came those instances as non-specific without definite article.

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